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TEOMCROTE = TEOTWAWKI on steroids! The End Of Mankind's Current Reign Over The Earth takes into account that our ancestors were neither suicidal, stupid, nor our genetic inferiors but still wound up getting wiped off the Earth. Whereas CSER [cser.org: Centre for Study of Existential Risk] tries to PREVENT this dispensation from coming to an end, TEOMCROTE works from the eventuality/possibility/probability that the end our age takes place and what to do then

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cement


]pdf

The raw material for cement manufacture is a rock mixture which is about 80% limestone [rich in CaCO3] and 20% clay/shale [source of silica/alumina/Fe2O3][very common rocks!].

Heating in (spinning) kiln at 1200-1400 degrees Celsius produces the clinker that's ground to dust. The heating is done in a slanted kiln, 60 meters long and tilted 2 meters.
Limestone and shale have variable values; it might be necessary to experiment with sources.

=>


CEMENT
80% limestone + 20% shale,
pulverized,
heated 1200 to 1400C degrees,
then pulverized again.

CONCRETE:
1 part cement
2 parts sand
4 parts gravel

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 10/1/2011, 9:02 am


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high strength cement


To get high strength concrete you have to have high quality ingredients, such as Type 2 Portland Cement, good sand, high strength rock aggregate (granite, river rocks, anything can work), then other chemical admixtures can help things (water reducers, super-plasticizers, etc.) but aren't necessary, and then mix it well in proper proportions to get good stuff (and then place it well and cure it well too (keep it wet or moist for 3 to 10 [sign in to see URL] doesn't reach full strength for about 28-days). It actually "cures" it doesn't "dry." The water chemically reacts with the Portland cement and becomes hard (while creating a lot of heat in the process)...if you let the surface dry out too much it can can cause cracks and become worse. A lot has to do with the proper water:cement ratio for the mix design you are trying to achieve. There are books and books on it, mass concrete with thicker sizes you have to watch how hot the core gets in relation to the surface because then more cracks, temperature cracks can occur, etc.... but that is the basics.

But keep in mind, quality of high-strength concrete can be offset by an intelligent design of a structure. In other words, high strength concrete is typically used to be [sign in to see URL] lower the cost of a construction [sign in to see URL] higher the strength the less volume of it you end up needing. But you can still design a structure to meet a certain design criteria based around what you have available. It just might take more quantity/volume if lower strength concrete to achieve the same results; or combination of concrete and other buildings materials such as bricks/rocks/steel, etc.

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example of a 5000PSI concrete mix


]"3000 pound" is concrete that is strong enough to carry a compressive stress of 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) at 28 days. Concrete may be specified at other strengths as well. Conventional concrete has strengths of 7,000 psi or less; concrete with strengths between 7,000 and 14,500 psi is considered high-strength concrete.

Water/Cement Ratio [sign in to see URL]
Slump 8”
Volume 1 Yd3


Cement Type II 890 lbs [Portland cement type 2]
Gravel ¾” 840 lbs
Gravel ½” 840 lbs
Sand 1070 lbs
Water 36 gal
Admixture [url=[sign in to see URL] 537 89 oz

EUCON MSA is a ready-to-use powdered microsilica (silica fume) concrete admixture. This product reacts chemically with the calcium hydroxide in the cement paste which yields a calcium silicate hydrate gel that significantly enhances strength and durability. The super fine microsilica fills the voids between cement particles creating a very dense, less permeable concrete.

contribution by Fred

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 10/1/2011, 10:12 am


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concrete strength after a few days


Fred has worked with concrete professionally all of his life; he has this to say about building a bunker FAST:

28-day cured concrete can be any strength from a crumbling failure to around 12,000-psi depending on the mix design, quality of ingredients, and competency in batching, placing, and curing it. Now remember 28-days is "fully" cured and what the mix design in supposed to establish as a minimum strength at that time frame. But that doesn't mean concrete is useless for 28-days. We routinely get 3,000 to 4,000 out of [over] designed 5,000-PSI mixes in 2 to 3 days that eventually hit 6 to 8,000-psi by 28-days (remember concrete suppliers typically over-design because they don't want to fail the minimum 28-day required strength and suffer a contractually obligated financial penalty, much less "lose face" and damage their [sign in to see URL] they go conservative). This is when we strip our form-work off and move on to form the next structure; the concrete is plenty strong, just not at it's maximum potential strength yet. You can also add super-plastisizer additives to the mix that will keep it liquid longer before it's "initial set" (which means when it first gets hard and you could walk on it for example, but still soft enough that you could gouge it with a tool if you wanted to). These are typically used if you need the concrete to stay more liquid for longer due to unique placing situations where you need more [sign in to see URL] because you need to transport it to a remote location after batch time before it sets-up on [sign in to see URL] it stays liquid 8-hours instead of typically setting up in about 2-hours after batching. BUT THEN, when it does "go off" it will typically flash-set and gain strength extremely fast. So if you were in a time-rush to get usable strength, this is one way you could conceivably get 4,000-psi in 2-days or so. Most major civil concrete structure such as bridges over water and such are made of "designed" minimum 5,000-PSI. Drive-ways and side-walks around your neighborhood are around 1,000 to 3,000 psi; so 4,000-PSI is REALLY strong. Just remember that concrete is only good in COMPRESSIVE strength; without a properly designed tensile strength element (typically steel (rebar)); concrete is useless to build a structure. It will crumble apart under any significant tensile stress applied on it.

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cement alternatives


video: Hemp Bricks are harder than concrete for homes and buildings!
]NL artikel
Apparently, lime and hemp produce a petrifying mixture that ends up harder than (regular) concrete (at 1/6 the weight).
Great, as well, because it's practically impossible to MAKE cement, so good alternatives are important to know about for the future.
In this video is explained that the hemp powder with the lime petrifies, i.e. mineralizes or turns into rock. It should be understood that the fibers have been EXTRACTED! When people talk about "hempcrete", they often suggest that it's the cellulose or fibers that are what's offering strength! In this video it's explained that the fibers should NOT be in the lime-hemp mix (because it's about the lime and hemp petrifying).

This is a big deal in understanding hempcrete. Most sources, even people who work with hempcrete professionally and have for years, suggest that hempcrete is an alternative for wood but not for concrete (because it's PSI is low, even as low as 150).

Bird seed often largely consists of hemp seed emoticon
This is a different plant than the marihuana cannabis. Regular [non THC-containing] hemp grows in stalks that have few branches. Many plants will fit on one square meter whereas only 4 marihuana plants will fit on the same area.

Also see into this YouTube vid for a cement alternative based on pine sap:
- sap
- bone dust
- sand

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 10/12/2016, 2:46 am


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more on hempcrete


hempcrete producers and recipe. & [url=[sign in to see URL] & [url=[sign in to see URL]

]Loads of hemp info

]PDF with info on Périer's hempcrete:
Lime-hemp is a biocomposite material formed by the mixture of the woody core of the
hemp plant, also known as hurd, and a lime based binder with the addition of water.
Hemp acts as the lightweight filler, or aggregate, and lime is the binder and
preservative. When setting, the composite forms a rigid lightweight material with
excellent insulation and durability characteristics (HLCPA, 2006). Hemp hurds are
usually a by-product of the fibre processing industry and, being naturally rich in silica
content, they help the hydraulic set of lime. The mix sets in few hours, while due to the
petrification process it acquires a stone-like consistence over time (Michka, 1994).


video: Hemp Bricks are harder than concrete for homes and buildings!

]NL artikel

Apparently, lime and hemp produce a petrifying mixture that ends up harder than (regular) concrete.
Great, as well, because it's practically impossible to MAKE concrete, so good alternatives are important to know about for the future.
See the YouTube video (in English)

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 2/22/2012, 11:54 am


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more recipes for cement


]Roman seawater concrete
The Romans made concrete by mixing lime and volcanic rock. For underwater structures, lime and volcanic ash were mixed to form mortar, and this mortar and volcanic tuff were packed into wooden forms. The seawater instantly triggered a hot chemical reaction. The lime was hydrated -- incorporating water molecules into its structure -- and reacted with the ash to cement the whole mixture together.

In concrete made with Portland cement the glue that binds the concrete's components together is a compound of calcium, silicates, and hydrates (C-S-H). Roman concrete produces a significantly different compound, with added aluminum and less silicon. The resulting calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) is an exceptionally stable binder.

The Roman recipe needed less than 10 percent lime by weight, made at two-thirds or less the temperature required by Portland cement. Lime reacting with aluminum-rich pozzolan ash and seawater formed highly stable C‑A-S-H and Al-tobermorite, insuring strength and longevity. Both the materials and the way the Romans used them hold lessons for the future.

The recipe for Roman concrete was described around 30 B.C. by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, an engineer for Emperor Augustus. The not-so-secret ingredient is volcanic ash, which Romans combined with lime to form mortar. They packed this mortar and rock chunks into wooden molds immersed in seawater. Rather than battle the marine elements, Romans harnessed saltwater and made it an integral part of the concrete.

Vitruvius specifies a ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts pozzolana [volcanic sands] for cements used in buildings and a 1:2 ratio of lime to pulvis Puteolanus for underwater work.
The high silica composition of Roman pozzolana cements is very close to that of modern cement to which blast furnace slag, fly ash, or silica fume have been added.


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