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TEOMCROTE = TEOTWAWKI on steroids! The End Of Mankind's Current Reign Over The Earth takes into account that our ancestors were neither suicidal, stupid, nor our genetic inferiors but still wound up getting wiped off the Earth. Whereas CSER [cser.org: Centre for Study of Existential Risk] tries to PREVENT this dispensation from coming to an end, TEOMCROTE works from the eventuality/possibility/probability that the end our age takes place and what to do then

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metallurgy


metal ores and sulfur: ]EXTRACTING METALS FROM SULFIDE ORES

Many important metals are present in nature combined with sulfur as metal sulfides; these include cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, molybdenum, nickel, silver, and zinc. In addition, gold and platinum group metals are associated with sulfidic base metal ores. The extraction of metals from their ores has been an essential factor in the creation and development of our advanced level of civilization.


]History of metallurgy: ancient metals

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 11/27/2011, 2:53 pm


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copper and native copper


When reading about copper ore, which usually contains less than 1% copper, i was wondering HTF did people in ancient times get to rely on bronze and brass if copper is so hard to extract from ore?!

Reading the article in the previous post, it becomes obvious that what people were finding and mining thousands of years ago is a naturally occuring layer of ]native copper that lies on top of copper ore deposits. People, even 6000 years ago, were just picking up almost pure copper out of the ground!

Major earth quakes might actually reveal new untouched undreamed of layers of ores and minerals but unless that happens, ores will have to be chemically and/or electrically reduced and such knowledge will be necessary to extract necessary metals and other minerals.

Copper, unlike common/modern assumptions and experience, is unnecessary for electrical wiring because aluminum is almost as good [60% of copper; conductivity is always a relative matter, just like silver is understood to make a better conductor than copper but too expensive to use as such], aluminum not being like the 10% of already extracted and concentrated copper ore, but 30% [!] of mass deposits of bauxiet and other aluminum-rich deposits covering immense areas of the world (such as the Sahel).
Copper is a valuable ore for aluminum bronze [10% aluminum] which resists saltwater and might be used for boat hulls [previously covered with bronze or copper before the advent of aluminum]. Aluminum bronze is also beautiful and very strong.
Copper has a few unique applications but many modern usages can be substituted by the more readily available aluminum. (Uses for aluminum, btw, are also up for reconsideration; often magnesium is as good or far better for typical aluminium applications and as Mg can be acquired from seawater, it is actually more generally available than aluminum. It's lighter and stronger than aluminum and non-toxic [actually healthy].)

Extracting copper now native copper reserves are depleted, is quite the metallurgical feat and research into this is required in order to ensure availability of copper for the future.

#aluminiumbronze]copper alloy info

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potassium metal


[url=[sign in to see URL] YouTube post:
We make potassium metal using a lesser known chemical approach of reduction with magnesium.
[Potassium metal was used in the first known production of aluminum.]
- Mg powder or turnings [powder works better]
- add 5 gr potassium hydroxide
- high-boiling [> 200C] solvent (he uses tetrahydronaphthalene; 20ml) [mineral or baby oil also works]
- produces hydrogen & inhibited by oxygen
- heat to 200C
- 0.4 ml of catalyst (he uses 2-methyl-2-butanol)
- 10 minutes later add 0.1 ml; add more every 10 minutes until a total of 1 ml
2Mg + 2KOH --> 2K + H2 + 2MgO

The importance of potassium
It used to be EXTREMELY difficult to get aluminum. It was valued more than gold just a few hundred years ago, for this very reason.
Before the advent of electricity, aluminum was obtained out of aluminumchloride by blowing it over a layer of molten potassium; the chloride attached to the potassium leaving pure aluminum behind (in globs).
Later this process was also accomplished with pure sodium (metal).

Both pure potassium and sodium are difficult to create. It's good to know how to make both and perhaps you'll successfully create one of the two and be able to make aluminum (without the immense electrical capability that's necessary to get it from bauxiet).

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steel


Steel from Dirt
Potassium Metal (Catalyzed Magnesium Reduction Method)


]The Saga of New Zealand Steel
]Iron – an abundant resource [in New Zealand]
of the Viking Sword [54 min. documentary]

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 4/11/2013, 9:04 am


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precious metals


]PURE GOLD AND IRON FROM SAND

]Dealing with Black Sands: Capturing the Gold

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alumin(i)um


SOURCES
Because of its strong affinity to oxygen, it is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates. Feldspars, the most common group of minerals in the Earth's crust, are aluminosilicates.
Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.[17] Large deposits of bauxite occur in Australia, Brazil, Guinea and Jamaica and the primary mining areas for the ore are in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Guinea, Indonesia, Jamaica, Russia and Surinam.
ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTION METHODS
WÖHLER PROCESS: reduction of anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium producing powdered aluminium. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE: Hydrated aluminium trichloride is prepared by dissolving aluminium oxides in hydrochloric acid.
Indirect carbothermic reduction can be carried out using carbon and Al2O3, which forms an intermediate Al4C3 and this can further yield aluminium metal at a temperature of 1900–2000 °C.
BAYER PROCESS
Bauxite is washed with sodium hydroxide @ 175 °C: aluminium oxide converts to sodium aluminate. Filter off the solid impurities. Cool solution and aluminium hydroxide precipitates as a white, fluffy solid. Aluminium hydroxide decomposes to aluminium oxide @ 980°C.
CRYOLITE [Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate]
Manufactured from aluminium oxides, hydrofluoric acid, and sodium hydroxide OR by reacting hydrofluoric acid with soda ash and aluminium hydrate. Hall-Héroult process: alumina is disolved into cryolite with calcium fluoride and reduced between 950 and 980 °C.
HALL-HÉROULT PROCESS
The carbon anode is consumed by the reaction with oxygen and must be replaced regularly.


I just saw an episode of Megafactories in which the Lamborghini gets made. The pure aluminum wheels of this Lamborghini are extremely light. What they do is FORGE the 45kg aluminum blocks by exerting 4,500,000kg pressure at 400 degrees Celsius. This keeps the metal more pure than would be the case if molten again. The end result is a wheel out of a single piece of aluminum. This allows it to be thinner at the same strength.

I don't know why they don't use magnesium, which is lighter and stronger than aluminum.

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magnesium


I didn't know it before, but it turns out that "mag wheels" are made of magnesium, as are many metal parts, even engines. Magnesium metal is actually lighter and stronger than aluminum. I've been reading into it and it's essentially a superior option to aluminum in most cases. Magnesium is not only harder and lighter than aluminum but often easier (and cheaper) to process. Perhaps it's part of the conspiracy: if it were commonly possible to get Mg metal from the sea, all coastal nations would have an abundant opportunity to get their own independent source of good metal, which is not beneficial to dependence on western supposed superiority (and would actually offer many poor countries an advantage, with their abundance of sunlight with which to evaporate seawater).
significant contribution should be made in the educating of die castings users: in driving them away from the idea that the only time it makes sense to consider magnesium over aluminum is when you have a price ratio of 1.5 to 1. This only reflects the weight difference in the two materials and there is much more to it than that. New applications in magnesium do not depend solely on weight reduction. This type of thinking is as much a myth as some of the others pointed out earlier. The main point is that magnesium needs to be considered as a suitable material for most die casting applications.

Magnesium is more expensive than aluminum, though nowadays not by much apparently, and though the energy requirements are considerable [hence the high cost], can be gotten from seawater.

Magnesium is only behind sodium and chloride when it comes to ppm [parts-per-million] and together they make up most of ]all sea minerals:
- 30,000 ppm sodium + chloride
- 1300 ppm Mg
- 1700 ppm of sulfur + potassium + calcium
- the rest; a lot less ppm to negligible

3,5% of seawater is seaminerals and about 3% of that is Mg. That means that when you allow seawater to evaporate, you get a pile of salts/minerals of which 3% is the extremely useful metal magnesium. It will likely be bound as MgCl or something. There are immense MgCl deposits where it's mined from old seabeds under northwestern Europe.
That's exciting indeed. Forget the Iron Age, bring on the Magnesium Age!
 emoticon

After HOURS of working through websites and tons of wiki pages, i've collected the following pieces to the magnesium [Mg]-from-seawater puzzle
 emoticon

- Ferrosilicon.............................................................[sand + coke with iron]
- calcium oxide (quicklime / (burnt) lime).....................[burn limestone / shells over 825C]
- calcium hydroxide (calcined/slaked lime)...................[calcium oxide + H2O]
- calcined dolomite ([sign in to see URL])....................................[magnesia and calcium hydroxide/?/calcium oxide]
- magnesium hydroxide (milk of Mg)............................[magnesium salts and sodium, potassium, or ammonium hydroxide]
..or...........................................................................[calcined dolomite/?/calcium hydroxide/?/calcium oxide + desalination brine]
- magnesia / Mg oxide................................................[Mg hydroxide, then roast/burn]
- Pidgeon process.......................................................[calcined dolomite + ferrosilicon heated in retort, Mg distills]
..or............................................................................([magnesia + ferrosilicon = silica + Mg])

- vitriol / sulfuric acid..................................................[burning sulfur together with ]saltpeter, with steam]
- hydrochloric acid......................................................[NaCl + vitriol, heated together]
- MgCl.......................................................................[Mg hydroxide + hydrochloric acid]
- electrolysis..............................................................[of MgCl]

A few points in addition to the above:
1. Desalination brine is evaporated seawater, 70% of which is pure NaCl and can be scraped off the top.
2. About 3% of sea minerals is Mg, i.e. 10% of all sea minerals minus NaCl.
3. The online sources are (yet) unclear on how to make Mg hydroxide; all options i found are listed above.
4. Same for calcined dolomite production; it is commonly mined nowadays, not produced, but production ensures availability.
5. The 2nd Pidgeon process option is considered either difficult or not economical [unclear].
6. One source mentioned Mg oxide can be reduced by aluminum.

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metal casting


to make greensand for casting metal
14 min. YouTube vid.
Bentonite clay powder + silica sand.
(Would Rojas' pure portland cement trick work for this?!)

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tungsten


Light bulb filament [[sign in to see URL] DIGqBb3iZPo]
--Log in or sign up to see linked image content--
EngineerGuy explains how complex the manufacturing of tungsten filaments for light bulbs is:
1: apply pressure to turn powder into solid bar
2: heat to 1300 Celsius and then cool with water
3: pass a current thru it at 3200 Celsius & cool again
4: heat to 1500 Celsius while flowing hydrogen over it
5: pass thru series of dies to coldwork and hammer it
6: heat and cool slowly while drawing into wire

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5/30/2012, 6:15 pm Link to this post Send Email to TheLivingShadow   Send PM to TheLivingShadow Blog
 
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graphene


It's not even a metal... So who cares about graphene?
Well, it makes steel look like pussy metal: ]graphene is 200 x times stronger!
Imagine a society having graphene weapons... The enemy's shields would be like cotton!
It's also the best conductive material known to man.
Introduction to graphene:
in or sign up to see linked image content--
][made with DVD player]

Last edited by TheLivingShadow, 3/11/2013, 8:47 am


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